Οργανικά Απόβλητα Και Απόβλητα Κήπων - Κομποστοποίηση

kalamaria2Η οικιακή κομποστοποίηση παραδοσιακά θεωρείται μία αγροτική διαδικασία αναγέννησης. H κομποστοποίηση ή λιπασματοποίηση είναι μέθοδος σταθεροποίησης και εξυγίανσης της οργανικής ύλης που μετατρέπει τα οργανικά υπολείμματα σε λίπασμα. Ωστόσο, πρόσφατα έχει αναγνωριστεί ως μία αποτελεσματική τεχνική διαχείρισης μέρους του ρεύματος των οικιακών βιοαποικοδομήσιμων στερεών αποβλήτων, μειώνοντας με αυτόν τον τρόπο την ποσότητα των αποβλήτων που οδηγούνται σε Χώρους Υγειονομικής Ταφής Απορριμμάτων (Χ.Υ.Τ.Α.). Η συμμετοχή των πολιτών σε αυτήν τη διαδικασία μπορεί να οδηγήσει σε σημαντικά πλεονεκτήματα τόσο για τους ίδιους όσο και συνολικά για το θέμα της διαχείρισης των στερεών αποβλήτων. Η οικιακή κομποστοποίηση έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την εξοικονόμηση χρημάτων και χώρου καθώς ελαττώνονται οι ποσότητες των απορριμμάτων που οδηγούνται στους χώρους υγειονομικής ταφής ενώ ο ίδιος ο κάτοχος μπορεί να χρησιμοποιήσει το παραγόμενο λίπασμα ως εδαφοβελτιωτικό. Παράλληλα η εφαρμογή της κομποστοποίησης προστατεύει το περιβάλλον καθώς το προϊόν που παράγεται είναι ανανεώσιμο και βοηθά στη διατήρηση της υγρασίας, των φυσικών και θρεπτικών οργανικών συστατικών του εδάφους και των φυσικών χαρακτηριστικών του. Τα απόβλητα που διαθέτουμε για κομποστοποίηση είναι όλα τα τρόφιμα χαλασμένα ή μη που πετάμε καθώς και τα υπολείμματα των γευμάτων της ημέρας μας. Επίσης τα υπολείμματα των κήπων μας όπως χόρτα, φύλλα και κλαδιά.

Ο κύριος περιβαλλοντικός κίνδυνος από την απόθεση των βιοαποικοδομήσιμων απορριμμάτων στους χώρους υγειονομικής ταφής (Χ.Υ.Τ.Α.) είναι η παραγωγή μεθανίου, που υπολογίζεται ότι άγγιξε το 3% του συνόλου των αερίων του θερμοκηπίου των 15 Κρατών-Μελών της Ε.Ε. το έτος 1995. Η οδηγία 1999/31/ΕΚ για την Υγειονομική Ταφή Αποβλήτων υποχρεώνει τα Κράτη-Μέλη να ελαττώσουν την ποσότητα των βιο-αποικοδομήσιμων απορριμμάτων στο 35% των ποσοτήτων που οδηγήθηκαν σε χώρους ταφής το 1995, έως το έτος 2016. Η διασφάλιση ότι τα Κράτη-Μέλη συμμορφώνονται πλήρως και εγκαίρως με αυτήν την απαίτηση αποτελεί κύρια προτεραιότητα της Κομισιόν. Μία από τις καλύτερες επιλογές για την επίτευξη του παραπάνω στόχου είναι η εφαρμογή της κομποστοποίησης.

Τα οργανικά υλικά που ρίχνουμε στους κάδους κομποστοποίησης περιγράφονται παρακάτω:

1. Όλα τα τρόφιμα, χαλασμένα ή μη, που πετάμε.

2. Υπολείμματα γευμάτων.

3. Φλοιοί (φλούδες) τροφίμων.

4. Υπολείμματα κήπων (χόρτα, φύλλα, κλαδιά).

 

kompostH κομποστοποίηση ή λιπασματοποίηση είναι μέθοδος σταθεροποίησης και εξυγίανσης της οργανικής ύλης που μετατρέπει τα οργανικά υπολείμματα σε λίπασμα. Σύμφωνα με την ελληνική νομοθεσία ως κομποστοποίηση χαρακτηρίζεται η ελεγχόμενη βιοξείδωση ετερογενών οργανικών υλών. Ετερογενείς και κυρίως ετερότροφοι μικροοργανισμοί (βακτήρια, μύκητες) βιοαποδομούν οργανικές ενώσεις.

 

Η κομποστοποίηση γίνεται με μικροβιακή αποικοδόμηση των οργανικών στερεών υλικών που γίνεται με αερόβια διεργασία αναπτύσσοντας σχετικά υψηλή θερμοκρασία. Κατά μετατροπή των βιοαποικοδομήσιμων απορριμμάτων σε λίπασμα παράγονται διοξείδιο του άνθρακα και θερμότητα. Το υπόλειμμα που προκύπτει είναι το λεγόμενο κομπόστ, το οποίο είναι ένα σταθερό, εξυγιασμένο υλικό σαν χώμα, πλούσιο σε οργανικά συστατικά και ελεύθερο από δυσάρεστες οσμές.

 

Η οικιακή κομποστοποίηση παραδοσιακά θεωρείται μία αγροτική διαδικασία αναγέννησης. Ωστόσο, πρόσφατα έχει αναγνωριστεί ως μία αποτελεσματική τεχνική διαχείρισης μέρους του ρεύματος των οικιακών βιοαποικοδομήσιμων στερεών αποβλήτων, μειώνοντας με αυτόν τον τρόπο την ποσότητα των αποβλήτων που οδηγούνται σε Χ.Υ.Τ.Α. Η μοναδικότητα αυτής της προσέγγισης έγκειται στο γεγονός ότι οι πολίτες λαμβάνουν οι ίδιοι την ευθύνη για την επεξεργασία και ανακύκλωση αυτών των απορριμμάτων, ενώ καρπώνονται άμεσα και τα οφέλη της.

 

Η συμμετοχή των πολιτών σε αυτήν τη διαδικασία μπορεί να οδηγήσει σε σημαντικά πλεονεκτήματα τόσο για τους ίδιους όσο και συνολικά για το θέμα της διαχείρισης των στερεών αποβλήτων. Η οικιακή κομποστοποίηση έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την εξοικονόμηση χρημάτων και χώρου καθώς ελαττώνονται οι ποσότητες των απορριμμάτων που οδηγούνται στους χώρους υγειονομικής ταφής ενώ ο ίδιος ο κάτοχος μπορεί να χρησιμοποιήσει το παραγόμενο λίπασμα ως εδαφοβελτιωτικό. Παράλληλα η εφαρμογή της κομποστοποίησης προστατεύει το περιβάλλον καθώς το προϊόν που παράγεται είναι ανανεώσιμο και βοηθά στη διατήρηση της υγρασίας, των φυσικών και θρεπτικών οργανικών συστατικών του εδάφους και των φυσικών χαρακτηριστικών του.

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