Ανακύκλωση Αποβλήτων Λιπαντικών - Ελαίων

Η Ανακύκλωση αποβλήτων λιπαντικών ελαίων (ΑΛΕ) είναι θεσμική υποχρέωση για τη χώρα μας και αποτελεί την εφαρμογή των πολιτικών συλλογής και διαχείρισης ΑΛΕ. Τα ανακυκλωθέντα ΑΛΕ επαναχρησιμοποιούνται ως λιπαντικές ουσίες σε μονάδες αναγέννησης ορυκτελαίων. Ανακυκλώνουμε όλα τα λάδια που χρησιμοποιούμε στους κινητήρες των αυτοκινήτων μας, βαλβολίνες, αντιψυκτικά, λάδια γρασαρίζματος, λάδια μηχανών της βιομηχανίας, λάδια ηλεκτροκινητήρων.

Τα λιπαντικά έλαια είναι ένα βασικό στοιχείο της καθημερινότητας πολλών πολιτών καθώς είναι απαραίτητα για τη λειτουργία μηχανών και μηχανισμών. Το 2006 καταναλώθηκαν στην Ε.Ε. περίπου 5,8 εκ. τόνοι λιπαντικών ελαίων . Κατά τη διάρκεια της χρήσης τους τα έλαια χάνουν τις ιδιότητές τους, με αποτέλεσμα να απορρίπτονται ως απόβλητα και να αντικαθίστανται με νέα έλαια. Στην Ε.Ε., το 50% των λιπαντικών ελαίων που αγοράζονται καταλήγει ως απόβλητο (το υπόλοιπο 50%, καίγεται είτε χάνεται κατά τη διάρκεια της χρήσης). Επομένως κάθε χρόνο η Ε.Ε. πρέπει να διαχειρίζεται περίπου 3 εκ. τόνους αποβλήτων λιπαντικών ελαίων (ΑΛΕ) . Στην Ελλάδα εκτιμάται ότι το 60% των λιπαντικών ελαίων που διατίθενται στην αγορά γίνεται απόβλητο.

Τα απόβλητα των λιπαντικών ελαίων ( ΑΛΕ ) αφορούν ειδικότερα τις ακόλουθες κατηγορίες αποβλήτων:

  • 13 01 απόβλητα υδραυλικών ελαίων
  • 13 02 απόβλητα έλαια μηχανής κιβωτίου ταχυτήτων και λίπανσης
  • 13 03 απόβλητα έλαια μόνωσης και μεταφοράς θερμότητας
  • Τέλος υπάρχουν κάποιοι εξαψήφιοι κωδικοί από τις κατηγορίες 13.04, 13.05 μπορούν να χαρακτηρισθούν ως ΑΛΕ.

Τα απόβλητα λιπαντικών ελαίων είναι επικίνδυνα για τη δημόσια υγεία και το περιβάλλον διότι περιέχουν σε μεγάλες συγκεντρώσεις τοξικές και καρκινογόνες ουσίες , όπως βαρέα μέταλλα, πολύ-χλωριωμένους υδρογονάνθρακες, πολύ-αρωματικές ενώσεις κλπ. Η ανεξέλεχτη διάθεση προκαλεί ρύπανση υπέργειων, υπόγειων υδάτων και του εδάφους. Συγκεκριμένα 1 λίτρο ΑΛΕ μπορεί να ρυπάνει μέχρι και 1 εκ. λίτρα πόσιμου νερού . Η καύση τους δημιουργεί προβλήματα αερίων εκπομπών.

Τα οφέλη της αναγέννησης αφορούν την ανακύκλωση των αποβλήτων λιπαντικών ελαίων ως την καλύτερη λύση αξιοποίησης τους αντί της καύσης ή χειρότερα ταφής τους. Επομένως η συλλογή και αναγέννηση μειώνει ουσιαστικά τις περιβαλλοντικές επιπτώσεις που προκύπτουν από τις άλλες μεθόδους αξιοποίησης των ΑΛΕ.

ΣΤΟΧΟΙ ΑΝΑΚΥΚΛΩΣΗΣ

Όσον αφορά τα λιπαντικά έλαια, οι ποσοτικοί στόχοι για τα απόβλητα λιπαντικών ελαίων (ΑΛΕ),όπως ορίζονται στο ΠΔ 82/2004, θέτουν ότι μέχρι το τέλος του 2006, πρέπει να συλλέγεται τουλάχιστον το 70%κατά βάρος όλων των αποβλήτων λιπαντικών ελαίων και εξ αυτών να αναγεννάτε τουλάχιστον το 80% κατά βάρος.

 

 

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