Ανακυκλωση Ηλεκτρικών Στηλών Και Συσσωρευτών

xamil-mpatarΗ ανακύκλωση ηλεκτρικών στηλών και συσσωρευτών είναι μία διαδικασία που πρέπει να γίνει πλέον μέρος της ζωής μας. Εκτός από την προστασία του περιβάλλοντος από ρυπογόνες ουσίες, ακόμη ένα σημαντικό όφελος είναι ο περιορισμός της σπατάλης πρώτων υλών. Με την ανακύκλωση, ξαναβάζουμε στο ρεύμα παραγωγής τα υλικά των άδειων μπαταριών που μπορούν να ξαναχρησιμοποιηθούν ως πρώτες ύλες για την επαναδημιουργία τους. Στα παραπάνω ανακυκλώσιμα υλικά περιλαμβάνονται όλοι οι συσσωρευτές φορητοί και μη, μπαταρίες τηλεχειριστηρίων, κινητών τηλεφώνων, ηλεκτρονικών υπολογιστών κ.α. Τα απόβλητα ηλεκτρικών στηλών και συσσωρευτών (ΗΣ&Σ) ή αλλιώς μπαταρίες διαχωρίζονται στις επαναφορτιζόμενες και μιας χρήσης. Επίσης μπορούν να διαχωριστούν στις ακόλουθες κατηγορίες:

  • Φορητές μπαταρίες
  • Μπαταρίες αυτοκινήτων
  • Βιομηχανικές μπαταρίες

 

 

Στην Ε.Ε. κάθε χρόνο παράγονται και τελικά απορρίπτονται περίπου 160.000 τόνοι φορητών μπαταριών . Η ποσότητα αυτή αντιστοιχεί σε 410 g το χρόνο ανά κάτοικο. Το 75% αυτής της ποσότητας είναι μη επαναφορτιζόμενες μπαταρίες, κυρίως μπαταρίες γενικής χρήσης, μπαταρίες κουμπιά και μπαταρίες λιθίου. Oι μπαταρίες κουμπιά, που περιέχουν υψηλή περιεκτικότητα σε υδράργυρο, υπολογίζονται στο 0,2% της παραπάνω ποσότητας. Το ποσοστό της ανακύκλωσης των φορητών μπαταριών υπολογίζεται στο 90% με μεγάλες διακυμάνσεις από χώρα σε χώρα. Σημειώνεται ότι ένα ποσοστό 20% της τελικής ποσότητας φορητών μπαταριών περιέχεται στα απόβλητα ηλεκτρικού και ηλεκτρονικού εξοπλισμού. Στην Ελλάδα χρησιμοποιούνται κάθε χρόνο περίπου 2.500 τόνοι φορητών μπαταριών , με την πλειοψηφία να ανήκει στις τύπου αλκαλικές και ψευδαργύρου άνθρακα.

Οι μπαταρίες αυτοκινήτων που χρησιμοποιούνται κάθε χρόνο στην Ε.Ε. υπολογίζονται σε 110.000 τόνους , με ένα ποσοστό περίπου 80-95% να ανακυκλώνεται. Οι μπαταρίες που αντικαθίστανται ανακυκλώνονται στο σύνολό τους ενώ ένα ποσοστό 15% περιέχεται σε οχήματα στο τέλος του κύκλου ζωής τους. Αντίστοιχα οι βιομηχανικές μπαταρίες υπολογίζεται σε περίπου 200.000 τόνους , εκ των οποίων το 97% είναι συσσωρευτές μολύβδου οξέως. Οι μπαταρίες αυτές συλλέγονται στο σύνολό τους όμως είναι δύσκολο να εκτιμηθεί το ποσοστό ανακύκλωσής τους λόγω της μεγάλης διάρκειας ζωής που έχουν.

Τα είδη των ΗΣΣ είναι οι μπαταρίες και οι συσσωρευτές (1606) και τα χωριστά συλλεγέντα μέρη των δημοτικών αποβλήτων (2001):

  • 160601 μπαταρίες μολύβδου
  • 160602 μπαταρίες Ni – Cd
  • 160603 μπαταρίες που περιέχουν υδράργυρο
  • 160604 αλκαλικές μπαταρίες (εκτός από το σημείο 160603)
  • 160605 άλλες μπαταρίες και συσσωρευτές
  • 200133 μπαταρίες και συσσωρευτές που περιλαμβάνονται στα σημεία 160601, 160602 ή 160603 και μεικτές μπαταρίες και συσσωρευτές που περιέχουν τις εν λόγω μπαταρίες
  • 200134 μπαταρίες και συσσωρευτές άλλα από τα αναφερόμενα στο 200133

 

Οι περιβαλλοντικές επιπτώσεις από την μη ανακύκλωση των ΗΣ&Σ σχετίζονται με τα επικίνδυνα βαρέα μέταλλα και ιδιαίτερα το μόλυβδο που περιέχουν. Σε περίπτωση καύσης, τα μέταλλα εξαερώνονται και καταλήγουν με τη βροχή στο έδαφος και σε υδάτινους αποδέκτες. Επιπλέον η στράγγιση των υγρών σε μη στεγανοποιημένο ΧΥΤΑ μπορεί να ρυπάνει τον υδροφόρο ορίζοντα. Οι μπαταρίες περιέχουν και διαβρωτικά οξέα τα οποία μπορούν να προκαλέσουν βλάβες στους ζωντανούς οργανισμούς. Επίσης κάποιες μπαταρίες είναι εύφλεκτες είναι δυνατό να προκαλέσουν φωτιά, ειδικά αν απορρίπτονται ανεξέλεχτα σε χωματερές κοντά σε δασικές εκτάσεις.

Με την ανακύκλωση των ΗΣ&Σ ανακτώνται πολύτιμα μέταλλα όπως ο μόλυβδος ο οποίος ανακυκλώνεται σχετικά εύκολα και μπορεί να επαναχρησιμοποιηθεί. Επιπλέον υπολογίζεται ότι γίνεται εξοικονόμηση ενέργειας, εφόσον για κάθε μπαταρία που ανακυκλώνεται εξοικονομείται ενέργεια σε ποσοστό που φτάνει και το 80%.

Οι ποσοτικοί στόχοι που έχουν τεθεί είναι η κάλυψη του 25% μέχρι το 2012 και του 45% μέχρι το 2016 των φορητών μπαταριών που διακινούνται κατά μέσο όρο στην ελληνική αγορά την τελευταία τριετία. Με βάση τον ετήσιο μέσο όρο, στην ελληνική αγορά, την τελευταία τριετία, ανακυκλώθηκε το 33% των φορητών μπαταριών.

 

ΣΤΟΧΟΙ ΑΝΑΚΥΚΛΩΣΗΣ

Για τα απόβλητα ηλεκτρικών στηλών και συσσωρευτών (ΗΣ&Σ), οι ποσοτικοί στόχοι, με βάση την ΚΥΑ 41624/2010, είναι:

 

  • Για τις φορητές ΗΣ&Σ μέχρι την 26η Σεπτεμβρίου 2012 πρέπει να επιτευχθεί ποσοστό συλλογής τουλάχιστον 25%.
  • Για τις φορητές ΗΣ&Σ μέχρι την 26η Σεπτεμβρίου 2016 πρέπει να επιτευχθεί ποσοστό συλλογής τουλάχιστον 45%. 
  • Η συλλογή του συνόλου των αποβλήτων ΗΣ&Σ οχημάτων και βιομηχανίας πρέπει να επιτευχθεί μέχρι την26η Σεπτεμβρίου 2012.

 

 

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