Ανακύκλωση Αποβλήτων Εκσκαφών Κατασκευών Και Κατεδαφίσεων

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Η Ανακύκλωση Αποβλήτων Εκσκαφών Κατασκευών και Κατεδαφίσεων είναι η διαδικασία ανάκτησης μετά από επεξεργασία των εν λόγω αποβλήτων με στόχο την επαναχρησιμοποίησή τους στην παραγωγή δομικών υλικών διασφαλίζοντας την μη ανεξέλεγκτη απόρριψή τους στο περιβάλλον και στην εξοικονόμηση ενέργειας και φυσικών πόρων. Τα παραγόμενα ανακυκλώσιμα ΑΕΚΚ αποτελούνται από υλικά, όπως σκυρόδεμα, σίδηρο, τούβλα, γύψο, ξύλο, γυαλί, μέταλλα, πλαστικά, αμίαντο και χώμα.

Τα απόβλητα εκσκαφών, κατασκευών και κατεδαφίσεων είναι από τα πιο βαριά και ογκώδη απόβλητα που παράγονται στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Αντιπροσωπεύουν το 25% – 30% περίπου του συνόλου των παραγόμενων αποβλήτων στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση και αποτελούνται από υλικά, όπως σκυρόδεμα, σίδηρο, τούβλα, γύψο, ξύλο, γυαλί, μέταλλα, πλαστικά, αμίαντο και χώμα, υλικά που μπορούν να ανακυκλωθούν.

Τα ΑΕΚΚ προκύπτουν από δραστηριότητες όπως η κατασκευή των κτιρίων και των δημοσίων υποδομών, ολική ή μερική κατεδάφιση κτιρίων και υποδομών και η κατασκευή και συντήρηση των οδών. Οι διαφορετικοί ορισμοί που εφαρμόζονται σε όλη την ΕΕ, έχει ως αποτέλεσμα τη δυσκολία συγκρίσεων μεταξύ των χωρών.

Τα ΑΕΚΚ έχουν αναγνωριστεί από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση ως ένα ρεύμα αποβλήτων με προτεραιότητα διαχείρισης. Υπάρχει ένα υψηλό δυναμικό για την ανακύκλωση και επαναχρησιμοποίηση των ΑΕΚΚ, δεδομένου ότι ορισμένα από τα συστατικά του έχουν μεγάλη αξία. Ειδικότερα, υπάρχει μια νέα αγορά για χρήση αδρανών υλικών που προέρχονται από ΑΕΚΚ για διάφορα κατασκευαστικά έργα. Επιπλέον, η τεχνολογία για το διαχωρισμό και την ανάκτηση των αποβλήτων κατασκευών και κατεδαφίσεων είναι καλά εδραιωμένη, εύκολα προσβάσιμη και γενικά χαμηλού κόστους.

Ωστόσο, το επίπεδο της ανακύκλωσης και επαναχρησιμοποίησης των αποβλήτων ποικίλλει σε μεγάλο βαθμό σε ολόκληρη την Ε.Ε. από λιγότερο από 10% έως και πάνω από 90%. Σε ορισμένα κράτη μέλη, αυτή η κατηγορία αποβλήτων απορρίπτεται, καταλαμβάνοντας πολύτιμο χώρο σε χώρους υγειονομικής ταφής. Επιπλέον, εάν δεν διαχωρίζονται στην πηγή, μπορεί να περιέχουν μικρές ποσότητες επικίνδυνων αποβλήτων, με κίνδυνο να προκαλέσουν ιδιαίτερους κινδύνους για το περιβάλλον.

Στην Ελλάδα η ποσότητα των αποβλήτων που παράγονται από τις διάφορες οικοδομικές εργασίες (κατασκευές και κατεδαφίσεις) εκτιμώνται σε 6-7 εκατ. τόνους ετησίως. Δεδομένου ότι μέχρι σήμερα δεν υπήρχε ένα οργανωμένο δίκτυο συλλογής και αξιοποίησης τους, η διαχείριση των υλικών αυτών σήμερα γίνεται αποσπασματικά, δημιουργώντας μεγάλα προβλήματα στο περιβάλλον εξαιτίας της ανεξέλεγκτης διάθεσής τους.

 

 

 

 

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