Ανακύκλωση Μαγειρικών Λαδιών

mageiroladaΤα λάδια που πετάμε στον νεροχύτη μας και, κατά συνέπεια, στην αποχέτευση καταλήγουν είτε σε κάποια βιολογική μονάδα επεξεργασίας, είτε στον υδροφόρο ορίζοντα. Η Ανακύκλωση χρησιμοποιημένων μαγειρικών λαδιών είναι η διαδικασία επαναχρησιμοποίησής τους για την παραγωγή βιοντίζελ καθώς αποτελούν άριστη πρώτη ύλη. Το βιοντίζελ είναι φυτικής βάσης ανανεώσιμο καύσιμο το οποίο παρουσιάζει διεθνώς αυξανόμενη παραγωγή και χρήση. Έχει παραπλήσιες φυσικές ιδιότητες με το ντίζελ, οπότε μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί είτε αυτούσιο ως υποκατάστατό του, είτε σε διάφορες αναλογίες με το ντίζελ. Τα λάδια που πετάμε στον νεροχύτη μας και, κατά συνέπεια, στην αποχέτευση καταλήγουν είτε σε κάποια βιολογική μονάδα επεξεργασίας, είτε στον υδροφόρο ορίζοντα. Στην πρώτη περίπτωση, η λειτουργία μίας μονάδας βιολογικής επεξεργασίας οικιακών λυμάτων βασίζεται στη δράση του μείγματος μικροοργανισμών (βακτηρίων) που επιρρίπτονται στο βιολογικό. Μετά την τοποθέτησή τους μέσα στο βιολογικό, αναπτύσσουν αποικία στις ειδικά διαμορφωμένες επιφάνειες του τελευταίου και για να αναπτυχθούν και να πολλαπλασιαστούν αναζητούν τροφή, η οποία στη περίπτωση του βιολογικού είναι τα αστικά λύματα που εισέρχονται σε αυτόν. Τα βακτήρια που χρησιμοποιούνται στις συγκεκριμένες βιολογικές μονάδες χρειάζονται οξυγόνο για να αναπτυχθούν. Αν στον βιολογικό καταλήξουν τα λάδια που πετάμε στην αποχέτευση, δημιουργούν ένα «φιλμ» στην επιφάνειά του (το λάδι είναι πιο ελαφρύ και επιπλέει στο νερό) που δεν επιτρέπει την οξυγόνωση των βακτηριδίων, με αποτέλεσμα την θανάτωσή τους. Το ίδιο συμβαίνει και όταν το λάδι δημιουργήσει επίστρωση στις επιφάνειες του βιολογικού όπου πρέπει να αναπτυχθούν τα βακτήρια.

Στην δεύτερη περίπτωση κατά την οποία τα λάδια καταλήγουν μέσω του υδροφόρου ορίζοντα σε ποτάμια ή λίμνες, πέρα από την ρύπανση, μπορεί, με τον ίδιο τρόπο, να επηρεάσουν το οικοσύστημα. Επιπρόσθετα, μεγάλο ποσοστό των προβλημάτων (φράξιμο κλπ) που προκύπτουν στις αποχετεύσεις οφείλεται στα χρησιμοποιημένα βρώσιμα λάδια. Η ΕΥΑΘ ξοδεύει εκατοντάδες χιλιάδες ευρώ προκειμένου να καθαρίζει κάθε χρόνο τις αποχετεύσεις.

Οποιοδήποτε λάδι χρησιμοποιούμε στο σπίτι μας για το μαγείρεμα και το τηγάνισμα, δηλαδή σπορέλαια (ηλιέλαιο, αραβοσιτέλαιο, βαμβακέλαιο, φοινικέλαιο), ελαιόλαδο, πυρηνέλαιο κτλ. μπορεί να ανακυκλωθεί. Σημειώνεται πως τα μηχανέλαια (ορυκτά λιπαντικά) ανακυκλώνονται με διαφορετική διαδικασία και δεν πρέπει να αναμιγνύονται με τα λάδια φυτικής προέλευσης.

Τα χρησιμοποιημένα λάδια αποτελούν άριστη πρώτη ύλη για την παραγωγή βιοντίζελ. Το βιοντίζελ είναι φυτικής βάσης ανανεώσιμο καύσιμο το οποίο παρουσιάζει διεθνώς αυξανόμενη παραγωγή και χρήση. Έχει παραπλήσιες φυσικές ιδιότητες με το ντίζελ, οπότε μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί είτε αυτούσιο ως υποκατάστατό του,  είτε σε διάφορες αναλογίες με το ντίζελ. Η απόδοση των χρησιμοποιημένων λαδιών είναι αρκετά υψηλή. Από ένα (1) λίτρο λάδι που θα ανακυκλωθεί παράγονται 0,8 λίτρα βιοντίζελ.

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